[Alias] Perchloric acid
[Molecular Formula] HClO4
[Property] Oxyacid of chlorine, colorless and transparent, extremely hygroscopic liquid, and strongly smokes in the air. Relative density: 1.768 (22/4 ℃); melting point: – 112 ℃; boiling point: 16 ℃ (2400Pa). A strong acid. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and is quite stable after being soluble in water. The aqueous solution has good conductivity. Anhydrous perchloric acid is extremely unstable and cannot be prepared under normal pressure. Generally, only hydrate can be prepared. There are six kinds of hydrates. The concentrated acid is also unstable. It will decompose immediately after being placed. It will decompose into chlorine dioxide, water and oxygen when heated and explode. It has strong oxidation effect and can also cause explosion when contacting with reburning materials such as carbon, paper and wood chips. Dilute acid (less than 60%) is relatively stable, and has no oxidation when cold. The highest boiling point mixture containing 71.6% perchloric acid can be formed. Perchloric acid can react violently with iron, copper, zinc, etc. to generate oxides, react with P2O5 to generate Cl2O5, and decompose and oxidize elemental phosphorus and sulfur into phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid.]
[Application] It is used in the production of perchlorates, esters, fireworks, explosives, gunpowder, film and for the purification of artificial diamonds. It is also used as strong oxidant, catalyst, battery electrolyte, metal surface treatment agent and solvent for acrylonitrile polymerization. It is also used in medicine, mining and smelting, electroplating lead and other industries. Perchloric acid and potassium ions generate slightly soluble potassium perchlorate, which can be used to determine potassium.
Post time: Oct-06-2022